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With contributions from worldwide field leaders-edited by L. Grigsby, one of the world's most respected, accomplished authorities in power engineering-this reference includes chapters on: Nonconventional Power GenerationConventional Power GenerationTransmission SystemsDistribution SystemsElectric Power UtilizationPower QualityPower System Analysis and SimulationPower System TransientsPower System Planning Reliability Power ElectronicsPower System ProtectionPower System Dynamics and StabilityPower System Operation and ControlContent includes a simplified overview of advances in international standards, practices, and technologies, such as small-signal stability and power system oscillations, power system stability controls, and dynamic modeling of power systems.
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The thrust density, i. The polyphase usually three-phase armature winding can be distributed in slots, made in the form of concentrated-parameter coils or made as a coreless air-cored winding layer. PMs are the most popu- lar field excitation systems for short traveling distances less than 10m , for example, factory transporta- tion or automation systems.
A long PM rail would be expensive. Electromagnetic excitation is used in high-speed passenger transportation systems operating on the principle of magnetic levitation maglev. The German system, Transrapid, uses vehicle-mounted steel core excitation electromagnets and station- ary slotted armatures. Japanese MLX test train sets use onboard superconducting SC air-cored electromagnets and a stationary three-phase air-cored armature winding distributed along the guide- way Yamanashi Maglev Test Line. From Gieras, J. Figure In surface arrangement of PMs, the yoke back iron of the reaction rail is ferromagnetic, and PMs are magnetized in the normal direction per- pendicular to the active surface.
Buried PMs are magnetized in the direction of the traveling magnetic field, and the yoke is nonferromagnetic, for example, made of aluminum Al. The same effect occurs in buried-type PM rotors of rotary machines in which the shaft must also be nonferromagnetic [2,3,9]. The so-called Halbach array of PMs also does not require any ferromagnetic yoke and excites stronger magnetic flux density and closer to the sinusoids than a conventional PM array.
The key concept of the Halbach array is that the magnetization vector should rotate as a function of distance along the array Figure A rotary synchronous motor has a cage damper winding embedded in pole shoe slots. When the speed is different from the synchronous speed, electric currents are induced in damper circuits. The action of the armature magnetic field and damper currents allows for asynchronous starting, damps the oscillations, and helps to return to synchronous operation when the speed decreases or increases.
Also, a damper circuit reduces the backward-traveling magnetic field. In addition, steel pole shoes or Al cover shield can protect brittle PMs against mechanical damage. The detent force, i.
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Skewed PMs can be arranged in one row Figure Thus, the thrust constant kF times the armature current Ia gives the electromagnetic thrust developed by the LSM. In slotless motors, the primary winding is uniformly distributed on a smooth armature core or does not have any armature core.
Slotless PM LSMs are detent force—free motors, provide lower torque ripple, and, at high input frequency, can achieve higher efficiency than slotted LSMs.
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On the other hand, larger nonferromagnetic air gap requires more PM material, and the thrust density thrust per mass or volume is lower than that of slotted motors Table Table All active motor parts, bearings, position sensors, and electronics have been integrated into a rigid metal cylinder . LSMs can also be designed as trans- verse magnetic flux motors, in which the lines of magnetic flux are perpendicular to the direction of the traveling field. A pair of parallel PMs creates a two pole flux excitation system. A double-sided configuration of transverse flux motor is possible; however, it is complicated and expensive Figure Normally, expensive rare-earth PMs are requested.
This price cannot be acceptable, for example, in pas- senger transportation systems. A cheaper solution is to apply the PM excitation system to the short armature that magnetizes the long reaction rail and creates magnetic poles in it. Such a linear motor is called the homopolar LSM. The homopolar LSM as described in [5,17] is a double-sided AC linear motor that consists of two polyphase armature systems connected mechanically and magnetically by a ferromagnetic U-type yoke Figure Each armature consists of a typical slotted linear motor stack with polyphase armature winding and PMs located between the stack and U-type yoke.
Since the armature and excitation systems are combined together, the armature stack is oversized as compared with a conventional steel-cored LSM. The PMs can also be replaced by electromagnets [17,19]. The variable reluctance reaction rail is passive. The saliency is created by using ferromagnetic solid or laminated cubes separated by a nonferromag- netic material. The reaction rail poles are magnetized by the armature PMs through the air gap. The trav- eling magnetic field of the polyphase armature winding and salient poles of the reaction rail produce the thrust. Such a homopolar LSM has been proposed for the propulsion of maglev trains of Swissmetro .
Further simplification of the double-sided configuration can be made to obtain a single-sided PM LSM shown in Figure According to Siemens , these new LSMs produce thrust forces and velocities equivalent to competitive classical models for light-duty machine tool, machine accessory, and material handling applications.
Thrust N Max. Speed at Max. Without PMs, there is no problem with ferrous chips and other debris being attracted to these sections.
Maintenance becomes a simple matter of installing a wiper or brush on the moving part of the slide. The flux-switching LSM comprises an armature section that is equipped with coils and PMs as well as a nonmagnetic, toothed reaction rail section Figure The key design innovation is an LSM in which PMs are integrated directly into the lamination of the armature core along with the individual windings for each phase. Both magnitudes and polarities of the linkage flux in the armature winding vary periodically along with the reaction rail movement. The magnetic flux between the armature core and steel reaction rail is controlled by switching the three-phase armature currents according to a desig- nated algorithm.
The passive reaction rail consists of milled steel with poles teeth and is much simpler to manufacture.
The poles and pole shoes can be made of solid steel, laminated steel, or sin- tered powder. If the electromagnetic excitation system is integrated with the moving part, the DC cur- rent can be delivered with the aid of brushes and contact bars, inductive power transfer IPT systems, linear transformers, or linear brushless exciters. The second important place for LIM applications is in industry, i.
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Transrapid 09 maglev train driven by LSMs with electromagnetic excitation. The Handbook of Linear Motor Applications  printed in Japan in contains about 50 examples of applications of LIMs in operation or in the pro- cess of implementation. The stator becomes the primary, and the rotor becomes the secondary . The secondary of a LIM can be simplified by using a solid steel core and replacing the cage ladder or slip-ring winding with a high-conductivity nonferromagnetic plate Al or Cu.
The nonferromagnetic plate is a secondary electric circuit with distributed parameters, and the ferromagnetic core is a conductor both for the magnetic flux and the electric current. It does not matter from the principle of operation point of view which part primary or secondary is in motion. Thus, the flat, single-sided LIM can be obtained from a solid rotor induction motor Figure In a double-sided LIM, the secondary ferromagnetic core is not necessary, since the magnetic flux excited by one of the primary windings after passing through the air gaps and nonferromagnetic secondary is then closed up by the core of the second primary unit.
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Theoretically, a double-sided LIM with primary windings located on two cores, in comparison with a single-sided LIM exciting the same MMF, has twice the air gap magnetic flux density. Therefore, the thrust of such a motor is four times greater, assuming the same dimensions. If only one primary core is wound, the output parameters of a double-sided LIM are the same as those for a single-sided LIM with laminated secondary back iron. The fundamental advantage of double-sided LIMs is the elimination of the normal attractiveforcebetweentheprimaryandthesecondarybecausethesecondaryisusuallynonferromagnetic.
Flat LIMs can have primary cores consisting of an array of cores arranged in parallel at appropri- ate distances and connected magnetically by additional yokes perpendicular to the direction of the YMTL in Yamanashi Prefecture near Tokyo , Japan.
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A magnetic circuit designed in such a way makes it possible to apply two windings, in general multiphase windings, with perpendicular conductors, as shown in Figure Adjusting the current in each winding, the secondary can be moved in two perpendicular directions and can be posi- tioned at any point of the x—y plane. By rolling a flat, single-sided or double-sided LIM around the axis parallel to the direction of the travel- ing magnetic field, i.
A tubular cylindrical LIM, similar to a flat LIM, can be designed both as single-sided and double- sided machines and can have a square or rectangular cross section, as in Figure All the aforementioned LIMs are motors with longitudinal magnetic flux, i. A LIM can also be designed in such a way as to obtain magnetic flux lines perpendicular to the direction of the traveling field.
Such motors are said to have transverse magnetic flux Figure The fundamental advantage of a LIM with transverse magnetic flux in comparison with a LIM with longitudinal magnetic flux is the lower magnetizing current necessary due to the shorter magnetic flux paths.